Hevelius presents his new constellations
heveliusfrontispiece.jpg
Johannes Hevelius, centre foreground, bends his knee in supplication as he presents his new constellations for approval to Urania, the muse of astronomy, and an array of great astronomers of the past*. This engraving forms the frontispiece to Hevelius’s star atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum, dated 1687 but not published until 1690.

In his right hand Hevelius carries a shield, representing his new constellation of Scutum, while in his left hand he carries his astronomical sextant, commemorated by Sextans. Behind him come his other constellations representing animals (see enlargement at right), led by little Lacerta, the lizard. Following that is Vulpecula cum Anser, the fox and goose; the two hunting dogs, Canes Venatici; above them are Leo Minor and Lynx;  and, at top left of this detail, is a three-headed snake representing Cerberus, the monster that guarded the gates of Hades. Cerberus was later dropped by astronomers, but the seven other constellations shown here remain in the sky. There is no sign in this illustration of two additional Hevelius inventions, Mons Maenalus (a subdivision of Boötes) and Triangulum Minus (a subdivision of Triangulum), both now obsolete.

In the wings of the main image are small representations of some existing constellations – Taurus with Canis Major and Minor on the left and, at right, Aries, Ursa Major, Capricornus, Leo, Lyra and Cygnus.


* This judging panel of astronomical greats is arranged in roughly chronological order outwards from Urania. On the left (Urania’s right) are Hipparchus, Timocharis (who actually preceded Hipparchus and hence is out of order), Ulugh Beg, Tycho and Bernhard Walther (‘Walterus’). On the right are Ptolemy, Albategnius, Wilhelm IV (the Landgrave of Hesse, here termed ‘Princeps Hass’), Regiomontanus and Copernicus. The inclusion of Wilhelm IV might seem surprising, as he is much less well known today than the others, but in the 16th century he was a respected astronomer who compiled a notable star catalogue.
heveliusconstellations.jpg
Six Hevelius constellations, seen in an enlargement from the lower left corner of the illustration above. At top left is Cerberus (now obsolete), with Lynx and the two dogs of Canes Venatici below it. Ahead of Lynx is Leo Minor. At centre is Vulpecula cum Anser (now just Vulpecula) with Lacerta at lower right.
The 56 constellations catalogued by Hevelius
with the number of stars tabulated in each
Andromeda
47
 
Hydra
31
Antinous
19
Lacerta  sive Stellio
10
Aquarius
48
Leo
50
Aquila
23
Leo Minor
18
Aries
27
Lepus
16
Auriga
40
Libra
21
Bootes
52
Lynx  sive Tigris
19
Cancer
29
Lyra
17
Canis Major
22
Monoceros
19
Canis Minor
13
Navis  (= Argo)
5
Canes Venatici
23
Orion
62
Camelopardalis
32
Pegasus
38
Capricornus
30
Perseus
48
Cassiopeia
38
Pisces
39
Cepheus
51
Sagitta
5
Cerberus
4
Sagittarius
26
Cetus
46
Scorpius
20
Coma Berenices
21
Scutum Sobiescianum  (= Scutum)
7
Corona  (= Corona Borealis)
8
Serpentarius  (= Ophiuchus)
44
Corvus
8
Serpens
22
Crater
10
Sextans Uraniae  (= Sextans)
12
Cygnus
47
Taurus
51
Delphinus
14
Triangulum Majus  (= Triangulum)
9
Draco
40
Triangulum Minus
3
Equuleus
6
Virgo
50
Eridanus
29
Ursa Major
73
Gemini
38
Ursa Minor
12
Hercules
45
Vulpecula cum Anser (= Vulpecula)
27
Hevelius’s catalogue was published posthumously in 1690 under the title Catalogus Stellarum Fixarum, with an accompanying star atlas, Firmamentum Sobiescianum. In all, the catalogue contains 1,564 entries. However, 13 of these are duplicates. There are another 18 for which Hevelius made no observations of his own but took positions from other catalogues. Therefore, the total number of separate objects in the catalogue with positions determined by Hevelius is 1,533. The total for Andromeda includes the Andromeda Galaxy, M31. (For detailed analysis see The Star Catalogue of Hevelius, Frank Verbunt and Robert van Gent, 2010.)