Planetary data tables
mean distance from Sun; minimum distance from Sun; maximum distance from Sun; eccentricity of orbit; inclination of orbit to ecliptic.
mean sidereal period; mean synodic period; sidereal orbital velocity; sidereal mean daily motion; period of axial rotation; inclination of equator to orbit.
equatorial diameter; mass; volume; mean density; oblateness; surface gravity; escape velocity; geometrical albedo; colour index.
angular equatorial diameter at unit distance; angular equatorial diameter at minimum distance; angular equatorial diameter at maximum distance; angular equatorial diameter at mean greatest elongation (Mercury and Venus); angular equatorial diameter at mean opposition distance (Mars to Pluto); mean visual magnitude.
9. Planetary moons and rings:
The moons of the planets are not tabulated here, as the numbers are now too vast and orbital data are constantly being revised. Full listings of orbital elements, physical parameters, and discoverers, regularly updated, are posted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
A table of planetary rings can be found on the website of the U.S. Geological Survey.
10. Asteroids (minor planets) and comets:
The International Astronomical Union’s Minor Planet Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory posts various useful tables on its website.
11. Planetary nomenclature:
A complete listing of all named planetary features, including information on rules and conventions, can be found on the website of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Earlier versions of Tables 1–8 have appeared in Norton’s Star Atlas (Ian Ridpath, ed).