ESO Moon.jpg
Exploring the Moon

A history of lunar discovery from the first
space probes to recent times
The first robot explorers

Landers and orbiters 1

Landers and orbiters 2

Sample returns and lunar rovers

Map of lunar landings

Table of Moon probes

Apollo to the Moon!

Meeting the challenge

Repeating the feat

Driving on the Moon

Heading for the hills

Apollo lunar mission chronology

Russia’s secret manned Moon programme

What did we learn from Apollo?

Lunar exploration since Apollo

The international Moon fleet

Exploring the Apollo landing sites 1

Exploring the Apollo landing sites 2

Exploring the Moon on stamps

Background image:
The waning crescent Moon.
(European Southern Observatory)

Text © Ian Ridpath

These pages support Ian’s talk on Exploring the Moon
Apollo lunar mission table
Russia’s secret manned Moon programme

December 21–27
Frank Borman
James. A. Lovell
William A. Anders
First humans to reach the Moon.
Orbited the Moon 10 times.
First manned Saturn V launch.

May 18–26
Thomas P. Stafford
John W. Young
Eugene A. Cernan
Dress rehearsal of Moon landing, in lunar orbit.
Orbited Moon for two and a half days.

July 16–24
Neil A. Armstrong
Michael Collins
Edwin E. Aldrin
Armstrong and Aldrin in the Lunar Module Eagle made first manned lunar landing in southwestern Mare Tranquillitatis, July 20.
Collected 21.55 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 21h 36m.

November 14–24
Charles Conrad
Richard F. Gordon
Alan L. Bean
Conrad and Bean in the Lunar Module Intrepid landed in southeastern Oceanus Procellarum on November 19, next to the unmanned robot probe Surveyor 3.
Collected 34.35 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 31h 31m.

April 11–17
James A. Lovell
John L. Swigert
Fred W. Haise
Landing cancelled after explosion in service module. Looped behind Moon without going into orbit.
Lunar Module Aquarius was used as emergency living quarters.

January 31–
February 9
Alan B. Shepard
Stuart A. Roosa
Edgar D. Mitchell
Shepard and Mitchell in the Lunar Module Antares landed on February 5 near the crater Fra Mauro. Collected 42.28 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 33h 31m.

July 26–
August 7
David R. Scott
Alfred M. Worden
James B. Irwin
Scott and Irwin in the Lunar Module Falcon landed on July 30 near Hadley Rille at the foot of the Apennine mountains.
First use of lunar roving vehicle. Subsatellite released into lunar orbit from the Service Module.
Collected 77.31 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 66h 55m.

April 16–27
John W. Young
Thomas K. Mattingly
Charles M. Duke
Young and Duke in the Lunar Module Orion landed on April 21 near the crater Descartes in the lunar highlands. Subsatellite released into lunar orbit from Service Module.
Collected 95.71 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 71h 02m.

December 7–19
Eugene A. Cernan
Ronald E. Evans
Harrison H. Schmitt
Cernan and Schmitt in Lunar Module Challenger landed on December 11 near the crater Littrow, on the southeastern edge of Mare Serenitatis.
Collected 110.52 kg of lunar samples.
Time on surface 75h 00m.